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Revised Biology Questions & Answers
Q. List the functions of proteins in the text area below.
- Hormone Production
- Carrier Proteins
- Immune Function
- Helps in repairing & growth
- All the above
ANSWER: 5. All the above
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ANSWER IN DETAIL
Proteins (building blocks of our body) form an integral part of our body and are one of the major biomolecules that sustain our body’s integrity in all forms.
They play important roles starting from constituting structure at the cellular level, regulating biochemical reactions to performing major life processes.
- Maintenance of oncotic pressure: Albumin, one of the major body proteins maintains the oncotic pressure of the blood. Since being a macromolecule, proteins cannot escape through capillary endothelium, they helps in reducing endothelial permeability thus less plasma fluid can escape out.
- Role as a buffer: Nearly all plasma proteins (for example hemoglobin, etc) due to their amphoteric nature and presence of differently charged regions easily binds hydrogen and hydroxyl ions and acts as a buffer.
- Role as a Carrier: Proteins constituting the cell membrane (channel and carrier proteins) act as carrier molecules for various substances and facilitate inward and outward transportation of various molecules. Also, hemoglobin is an important example of a transport protein that helps in the transportation of both oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body.
- Enzymes and coenzymes: Enzymes and coenzymes play a major role in catalyzing all biochemical and metabolic reactions and all enzymes and some coenzymes are essentially made up of proteins.
- Role in blood clotting: Proteins like fibrinogen, thrombin, etc are involved in one of the most crucial homeostatic regulatory mechanisms. i.e, blood clotting. They play important roles in blood coagulation and also in clot dissolution (fibrinolysis).
- Role in immunity: Immunoglobulins, (IgA, IgG, IgM) or antibodies belong to the group of glycoprotein that are a critical part of the immune response.
- Role in allergy: Allergic symptoms and reactions involve antibody IgE which is again a glycoprotein.
- Role in inflammation: Reactions and symptoms of inflammation are associated with proteins like cytokines, α1 antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin, etc.
- Hormonal role: Hormones that regulate homeostasis in the body are mostly proteins, for example, insulin, TSH, FSH, etc.
- Structural role – Cellular structures like cell membranes, microtubules, etc are made up of various proteins. Keratin is also a structural protein that makes up the skin, hair, and nails.
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